Techniques for Diagnosing Anal Diseases

Currently, modern techniques and advanced tools are used to examine and diagnose diseases in the anal canal. We will present the most important modern methods in this field. using the most modern Techniques for Diagnosing Anal Diseases is the first step before treatment.

First: High-Resolution Anoscopy (HRA)


This method allows for the diagnosis of diseases inside the anal canal and the rectum with high precision and a zoom of up to 38 times (38X). The examination can be recorded as a high-definition (HD) video.

Diseases Diagnosed:

  • Internal haemorrhoids of all degrees
  • Anal fissures
  • Tumours inside the anal canal and lower rectum
  • Anal warts
  • Polyps
  • Rectal and posterior vaginal prolapse
  • Anal and rectal ulcers
  • Visualisation of the internal openings of anal fistulas
  • Causes of anal bleeding

Advantages of HRA:

  • The examination is easy, quick, and conducted in the clinic within 2-3 minutes.
  • No anaesthesia is required.
  • No patient preparation is needed.

Second: Endoanal Ultrasound (EAUS) – 2D and 3D

This is an easy and quick examination that does not require preparation and is conducted in the clinic. It can often replace magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Diseases Diagnosed:

  • Anal fistulas: All degrees, simple and complex, especially when using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to trace the fistula path.
  • Diagnosis of tumours in the walls of the anal canal and rectum.
  • Diagnosis of anal abscesses, their size, and extent.
  • Crucial for assessing the internal and external anal sphincters and levator ani muscle, showing any damage to these muscles, aiding surgeons in determining the correct treatment.

Third: Anal Rectal Manometry with Sensation

Measuring anal pressures and sensitivity to the rectum and anus. Previously, this test was cumbersome, requiring a large device, many wires, and hours to conduct.

Now, a small and wireless device is available, allowing the test to be conducted in the clinic within 5-7 minutes without the need for patient preparation or anaesthesia. This test provides surgeons with important information for diagnosing various difficult and hidden diseases.

The device measures various pressures and sensations, aiding in the assessment of muscular injuries, determining delivery methods for pregnant women, evaluating cases of fecal and gas incontinence, diagnosing chronic constipation, chronic pelvic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Fourth: Sigmoidoscopy and Proctoscopy

This is also an easy and quick test requiring the patient to take an enema on the morning of the test. The endoscope is disposable, single-use for each patient, and equipped with a light source. There are rigid and flexible types.

Diseases Diagnosed:

  • Tumours
  • Ulcers
  • Colitis
  • Internal haemorrhoids
  • Diverticula of the colon
  • Strictures in the lower colon
  • Lower gastrointestinal bleeding to determine its cause
  • Biopsies of tumours and polyps in the lower colon, rectum, and anus.